Hip Replacement Causes
Hip replacement is one of the most common and effective treatments for severe or moderate joint pain in the hip joint due to a variety of causes. Along with knee replacement, hip replacement has the largest increases in quality of life measures of any medical interventions.
Osteoarthritis is the commonest joint disease in the world, affecting hundreds of millions of people, some very severely. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition of the bone and articular cartilage of the joints and is related to age, with the incidence going up markedly as each decade passes.
Hip arthritis often comes on slowly with some aching in the hip after significant exertion and progresses to more continuous pain, limitation of joint movement and restriction of normal functional activity. Eventually sleep can be badly disrupted and the person's mobility greatly impaired.
Hip replacement surgery for the elderly person with osteoarthritis is usually a standard choice from the various hip prosthesis types: the cemented total hip replacement. This has been shown to have extremely good results over ten to fifteen years and seems to be the best of the types of hip replacement joints for this age group.
Much less common than osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis is the commonest arthritic disease and has a higher incidence in women. Multiple joints may be affected and knees and hips are commonly replaced. Because of the instability of some rheumatoid joints, the choice of types hip replacement prosthesis is more complex to manage the fragility of the bone and the lack of normal ligamentous support.
In this condition the blood supply to the head of the thigh bone is compromised and the bone in that area dies, leading to collapse of the ball to a greater or lesser degree. This makes the joint arthritic very quickly and can be related to steroid use or occur after a fracture.
Hip fractures are relatively common, especially in the elderly with some degree of osteoporosis and can have important consequences for the future of the joint. If the fracture is very high, just below the ball of the hip joint, the blood supply to the head of the femur can be disrupted with the risk of avascular necrosis as described above. This may require one of the different types of hip replacement such as the Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty which just replaces the head and leaves the socket untouched.
Congenital Hip Abnormalities
Development dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is an condition where the baby is born with a hip and socket arrangement which is abnormal and not likely to develop into a normal hip joint. Early treatment is very successful at restoring normality but some people continue to have abnormal hips and have to have hip replacements in their early adulthood.
The choice of types of total hip replacements is especially important here as younger people will need the hip re-doing several times during their life. Uncemented hip replacements may be chosen of the different hip replacement methods in these cases.
Hip replacement is a form of hip arthroplasty and the hip arthroplasty definition is the replacement or reconstruction of an abnormal or degenerate joint